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Discipline and Punishment in ZANLA: 1964 -1979 – Preface

Preface Discipline is a subject more referred to than examined in the history of Zimbabwe’s liberation war. While there are references to the administration of punishment in specific circumstances or, more often, contemptuous remarks by Rhodesian soldiers regarding the unprofessional conduct of guerrillas in general, few studies have investigated the systematic deployment of disciplinary structures […]


The findings of the commission

A. Events and Circumstances of Chitepo’s Death In our first term of reference, we were required to inquire into the events and circumstances leading to the death of the late Herbert Chitepo on the 18th March, 1975. From the evidence, it is clear that there existed a state of bitter struggle and conflict in ZANU, […]


The aftermath of Chitepo’s death

The Burial of Chitepo Soon after the death of Chitepo, Mrs. Victoria Chitepo and some of Chitepo’s relatives were going through Chitepo’s wardrobe looking for suitable clothing in which to dress the body. Mrs. Chitepo told the Commision that when they took some of the clothes to the laundry, she found the following letter (in […]


The death of Chitepo

Bishop Abel Muzorewa in Lusaka As already stated, on the 8th March, 1975, Chitepo returned to Lusaka alone without his two colleagues, namely Hamadziripi and Chigowe. Immediately on arrival, he reported to the DARE about the events in Malawi following their trip there on the 4th March, 1975. In his interview with His Excellency President […]


The aftermath of Nhari Rebellion

Recapture of Chifombo by High Command According to Tongogara’s evidence, after the incidents of the 9th to the 10th December, 1975, the DARE decided that the situation should be normalised. A meeting was held at which all the eight members were present. It examined the situation and found that John Mataure was guilty of ‘conniving […]


The Nhari Rebellion

Causes of the Rebellion The pent-up grievances of ZANU military cadres which came to a head in late November and the early part of December, 1974, precipitated a crisis of unparalleled proportions in the annals of ZANU External Wing. Some cadres at the Front, led by their commanders, Thomas Nhari and Dakarai Badza, had revolted […]